موقع سهاد القلبموقع سهادالرئيسيةس .و .جالتسجيلاعلاناتاتصل بنادخول
انت متصل باسم زائر
آخر زيارة لك كانت
لديك 1 مساهمة
ثمة هنا مجتمع باذخ بالعطاء مسرف في الاحاسيس ينتظركم بكرم السيل من مجتمع سهاد القلب إلى اصحاب المشاعر و الاحاسيس

شاطر | 
 

 jeita grotto

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
أهـــات دمـــع فلســطيني
عضو جديد
عضو جديد
avatar

الــــدولــــة :
الــجــنــس : ذكر
الــمـهــنــة :
الــهــوايــة :
الــمــزاج :
عدد المساهمات : 11
S M S : مملكة و منتيات سهاد القلب الموقع الرسمي
الاوسمة :

الاضافات
مشاركة/share:
قيم-الموضوع/Rate-Thread:

مُساهمةموضوع: jeita grotto   الإثنين 31 أكتوبر 2011, 01:32








Caverns sculpted by water
and time
Few
caverns in the world approach the astounding wealth or the
extent of those of Jeita. In these caves and galleries, known
to man since Paleolithic times, the action of water has
created cathedral-like vaults beneath the wooded hills of
Mount Lebanon.
Geologically, the caves provide a tunnel or
escape route for the underground river, which is the principal



source
of the Nar el-Kalb (Dog River). Located some 20 kilometers
along the highway North of Beirut, a large sign indicates the
right turn from Zouk Mickael village, just beyond the tunnel.
The caverns are on two levels. The lower galleries, discovered
in 1836 and opened to the public in 1958, are visited by boat.
The upper galleries, opened in January 1969, can be seen on
foot.
To mark the inauguration of the upper
galleries, arranged by the Lebanese artist and sculptor
Ghassan Klink, a concert was organized in the cave featuring
electronic music by the French composer François Bayle. Other
cultural events have taken place in this unusual venue,
including a concert by the German composer Carl-Heinrich
Stochhausen in November 1969.
Jeita remained a popular attraction
until the recent Lebanese conflict forced it to close in the
mid 1970’s. Upon the initiative of Minister of Tourism
Nicolas Fattouche, the Ministry charged the German company
"Mapas" to renovate and re-equip its facilities by
the most modern techniques and to operate the complex. On July
6, 1995, this natural wonder was again open to the public.








JEITA REDISCOVERED
The
modern discovery of the underground river of Jeita dates to
1836 and is attributed to Reverend William Thomson, an
American missionary who ventured some 50 meters into the cave.
Reaching the underground river, he fired a shot from his gun
and the resulting echoes convinced him that he had found a
cavern of major importance.
In 1873 W.J. Maxwell and H.G. Huxley,
engineers with the Beirut Water Company, and their friend
Reverend Daniel Bliss, president of the Syrian Protestant
College (later the American University of Beirut) explored
these caverns. In two expeditions carried out in 1873 and 1874
they penetrated 1,060 meters into the grotto-principal source
of the Nahr el-Kalb that supplies Beirut with water. They were
finally stopped by "Hell's Rapids", where the river
flows in torrents over razor sharp rocks.
Like explorers everywhere, Dr. Bliss, Mr.
Maxwell and the other engineers could not resist recording
their names and the year on "Maxwell's Column", a
great limestone pillar some 625 meters from the entrance.
About 200 meters further on, in the
so-called "Pantheon', they wrote their names and details
of the expedition on paper, sealed it in a bottle and placed
it on top of a stalagmite. The action of the lime- impregnated
water has since covered the bottle with a thin white film,
permanently

fixing
it to the stone. Between 1892 and 1940 further expeditions
were carried out, mostly by English, American or French
explorers. These efforts brought them to a depth of 1,750
meters.
Since the 1940's, Lebanese explorers,
notably the members of the Speleo-Club of Lebanon founded by
the first Lebanese speleologist Lionel Ghorra, have pushed
even deeper into the Jeita grotto. Their methodical
exploration revealed the great underground system of the upper
and lower galleries which is now known to a depth approaching
9 kilometers.
The upper galleries, discovered in August
1958 by Lebanese speleologists, required a hazardous climb to
650 meters above the entrance of the underground river.
Altogether, 2,130 meters of this gallery have been explored.


Back
to top

















INSIDE
THE CAVERNS
In summer you can
visit both the upper and lower galleries while enjoying
the refreshingly cool temperature inside the caves. The
lower section is sometimes closed in winter when the
water level is high, but the extensive upper galleries
are open all year.
Plan on about two hours for the tour, which includes a
boat ride through the lower galleries, the visit to the
upper galleries on foot and a film presentation.

The Lower
Galleries
This
part of the cavern takes you to a beautiful underworld
millions of years in the making.
Both the 600-meter boat trip on a subterranean lake is
only a sampling of the system that has been explored for
almost 6,910 meters.
The first impression is the sound of rushing water


and
a sensation of clean cold. But the roar of the waterfall
at the entrance gives way to profound silence as you
glide deeper into the cave. An effective new lighting
system illuminates expert rock climbers-and marvel at
the columns and sculptures fashioned by those great
architects-water and time.

The Upper Galleries
The
approach to these dry galleries through a 120-meter-long
concrete tunnel does little to prepare you for the
surprising world beyond. Formed several million years
before the lower caverns, this section shows what the
entire cave system was like before geological conditions
displaced the subterranean river to its present level.
For 650 meters you wind your way
through different levels of the caverns, contemplating
the flowing stone draperies and other formations.
Perhaps the most dramatic sight is the yawning canyons
and sink holes, some seen at a drop of over a hundred
meters.


















Getting
Around Jeita
Leaving
your car in the parking area, you purchase entry and
parking tickets. From here the fun begins with a short
ride up the mountain in one of four Austrian cable cars.
If
you prefer land transportation, a Disney-like
"train" pulled by a small replica of a steam
engine makes regular runs up and down the hill between
the parking area and the upper galleries.







Near
the entrance to the upper galleries is an air conditioned
theater which has scheduled showings of a film about Jeita in
several languages. Check which time the language you want is
shown so you can coordinate the film with your visit to the
cave.
The
tickets you have bought double as access cards and are
inserted at the entry gates of the upper and lower galleries
and for the cable car. Also keep them handy for the train and
the theater. When departing, your parking ticket is needed to
exit the gate.
The facility has several restaurants, snack
bars and restrooms as well as souvenir shops selling Lebanese
handicrafts. Open Tuesday through Thursday from 9 am to 6 pm
and Friday through Sunday from 9 am to 7 pm. Closed on
Mondays, unless it is a national holiday.
- Photography is not permitted inside the caves -
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
jeita grotto
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
مملكة و منتديات سهاد القلب الموقع الرسمي ::   ::   :: منتدى السياحة و السفر | Forum Tourism and travel |-
انتقل الى:  
سحابة الكلمات الدلالية

أنت غير مسجل في سهاد القلب للتسجيل .. اضغط هـنـا